medical mycology

medical mycology

medical mycology

Pythium insidiosum

A genus of destructive root-parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Pythiaceae, order Peronosporales, commonly found in cultivated soils all over the world. Differentiation of zoospores takes place in a vesicle.

Life cycle of the pathogen Pythium insidiosum. The upper panel represent its life cycle in nature. The lower panel shows the possible mechanism of infection



ادامه مطلب
تاريخ : 2015/3/3 | 13:49 PM | نویسنده : |

Pneumocystis

This is a generalized life cycle proposed by John J. Ruffolo, Ph.D. (Cushion, MT, 1988) for the various species of Pneumocystis. These fungi are found in the lungs of mammals where they reside without causing overt infection until the host's immune system becomes debilitated. Then, an oftentimes lethal pneumonia can result. Asexual phase: trophic forms The number 1 replicate by mitosis The number 2 to The number 3. Sexual phase: haploid trophic forms conjugate The number 1 and produce a zygote or sporocyte (early cyst) The number 2. The zygote undergoes meiosis and subsequent mitosis to produce eight haploid nuclei (late phase cyst) The number 3. Spores exhibit different shapes (such as, spherical and elongated forms). It is postulated that elongation of the spores precedes release from the spore case. It is believed that the release occurs through a rent in the cell wall. After release, the empty spore case usually collapses, but retains some residual cytoplasm The number 4. A trophic stage, where the organisms probably multiply by binary fission is also recognized to exist. The organism causes disease in immunosuppressed individuals.



ادامه مطلب
تاريخ : 2015/1/2 | 10:58 AM | نویسنده : |

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus and the causative agent of the disease paracoccidioidomycosis. The fungus has been affiliated with the family Ajellomycetaceae (division Ascomycota) although a sexual state or teleomorph has not yet been found.



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تاريخ : 2014/8/31 | 14:53 PM | نویسنده : |

loboa loboi

تاريخ : 2014/6/1 | 23:58 PM | نویسنده : |

zygomycetes species



تاريخ : 2014/5/31 | 16:19 PM | نویسنده : |

Syncephalastrum Species

تاريخ : 2014/5/31 | 16:17 PM | نویسنده : |

Life cycle of coccidioides



تاريخ : 2014/5/20 | 22:46 PM | نویسنده : |

Cryptococcus neoformans




تاريخ : 2014/5/9 | 0:10 AM | نویسنده : |

piedra

Black piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair shaft caused by Piedra hortae, an ascomycetous fungus forming hard black nodules on the shafts of the scalp, beard, moustache and pubic hair.

It is common in Central and South America and South-East Asia.




ادامه مطلب
تاريخ : 2014/1/6 | 9:44 AM | نویسنده : |

E test

Epsilometer test

 

The Epsilometer test (usually abbreviated Etest) is a laboratory test used by microbiologists to determine whether or not a specific strain of bacterium or fungus is susceptible to the action of a specific antibiotic.

This is most commonly used in the setting of medicine, where a particular organism has been found to infect a patient, and the doctor treating the patient is seeking guidance on what concentration of antibiotic is suitable.

 

 



ادامه مطلب
تاريخ : 2013/12/22 | 9:11 AM | نویسنده : |

Malassezia pachydermatis

تاريخ : 2013/12/12 | 13:4 PM | نویسنده : |

Aspergillus clavatus images

تاريخ : 2013/8/6 | 1:45 AM | نویسنده : |

Candida albicans



C. albicans is naturally present in the respiratory tract and mouth of most people, and the vagina of most women. The yeast causes no problem in healthy individuals, as its numbers are controlled by naturally occurring microorganisms. If the natural balance between these microorganisms and Candida is perturbed, the virus may multiply, producing a candidiasis such as thrush.

Symptoms of the disease: small white plaques, usually observed on the tongue and in the mouth.

Incubation period: two to five days.

Contagious period: as long as lesions are present.

Hosts: humans.

Transmission: direct contact with oral, dermal or vaginal secretions or excretions from infected individuals. Transmission may also occur from mother to infant during birth.

Treatment of the disease: nystatin and azole, both taken orally.

Geographical distribution of the microorganism: worldwide.

Prevention: disinfection of beds in nurseries, in order to avoid transmission of thrush from one infant to another.

Vaccine: none.




ادامه مطلب
تاريخ : 2013/1/22 | 22:17 PM | نویسنده : |

Phoma species

Microscopic Features

Septate hyphae, pycnidia, conidia, and chlamydospores (for some species only) are visualized. The hyphae are hyaline to brown. Pycnidia are the large, round to pyriform, asexual fruiting bodies which are 70-100 µm in diameter. They are dark in color and bear phialides at their inner lining. Pycnidia have one to several openings (ostioles) on their surface from which the conidia are released outside. Conidia are unicellular, hyaline, and oval-shaped. Each conidium typically has two oil droplets inside. Some Phoma species produce brown chlamydospores that are arranged singly or in chains



ادامه مطلب
تاريخ : 2012/11/16 | 23:4 PM | نویسنده : |

Yeast cell

Yeast cell. Computer artwork showing the structure of a yeast cell.



تاريخ : 2012/10/10 | 20:28 PM | نویسنده : |

Penicillum chrysogenum

Computer artwork of Penicillum chrysogenum, which has been used industrially to produce penicillin



تاريخ : 2012/10/10 | 20:23 PM | نویسنده : |

Malassezia


Malassezia skin fungus. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of spore clusters from the fungus Malassezia lipophilis. Malassezia fungi are naturally found on the skin surfaces of many animals, including humans. Some species can cause hypopigmentation on the trunk and other locations in humans.



تاريخ : 2012/10/10 | 20:18 PM | نویسنده : |

Reaction of an ascomycetous yeast with diazonium blue B

Sporopachydermia quercuum

The new ascosporogenous yeast species Sporopachydermia quercuum has been found to react positively with the diazonium blue B reagent, a feature normally associated exclusively with yeasts of basidiomycetous affinity.



تاريخ : 2012/9/26 | 21:4 PM | نویسنده : |

Synnemata

Synnemata form from the aggregation of hyphae resulting in an erect spore bearing complex structures. This shows a simple type.



تاريخ : 2012/6/21 | 21:38 PM | نویسنده : |

Caspofungin




pneumocandin B0**a natural fermentation product of the fungus Glarea lozoyensis
***********************

Caspofungin acetate (Cancidas) is used to treat aspergillosis, a life threatenting fungal infection


تاريخ : 2012/3/24 | 23:52 PM | نویسنده : |

Amanita muscaria

Amanita muscaria




ادامه مطلب
تاريخ : 2012/2/22 | 15:59 PM | نویسنده : |

representative methods of conidium production in mitosporic fungi

Some representative methods of conidium production

in mitosporic fungi




تاريخ : 2012/2/22 | 14:57 PM | نویسنده : |

Neurospora crassa

Neurospora crassa




  • Neurospora crassa is a filamentous fungus, a bread mold, which in its natural environments can be found growing on dead plant matters predominantly in tropical and subtropical regions.
  • Neurospora crassa is one of most important model organisms of our times. Most of its life stages are haploid which significantly simplifies genetic analysis. Research programs dedicated to Neurospora crassa focus on circadian rhythms, genetiss, gene silencing, ecology, evolution, and many other areas.


تاريخ : 2012/2/22 | 14:48 PM | نویسنده : |

Pythiosis

Pythium insidiosum


Pythium is a genus of parasitic oomycete. Most species are plant parasites, but Pythium insidiosum is an important pathogen of animals. Because this group of organisms were once classified as fungi, they are sometimes still treated as such.

Human pythiosis associated with thalassemia hemoglobinopathy syndrome



ادامه مطلب
تاريخ : 2012/2/18 | 10:25 AM | نویسنده : |

Microsporum canis

Microsporum canis (Arthroderma otae)


 



ادامه مطلب
تاريخ : 2012/2/16 | 16:31 PM | نویسنده : |

Microsporum canis var. distortum

Microsporum canis var. distortum


Microsporum canis var. distortum is a zoophilic fungus known to cause infections in cats, dogs and other animals. It is a rare cause of tinea capitis in New Zealand, Australia and North America.



تاريخ : 2012/2/16 | 16:7 PM | نویسنده : |

Nonseptate hyphae of Mucor pusillus

Nonseptate hyphae of Mucor pusillus which have occluded a vessel.

H & E stain

 



تاريخ : 2012/2/15 | 23:55 PM | نویسنده : |

Microconidia & macroconidia and chlamydospores of F. solani

Microconidia on long phialides, macroconidia and chlamydospores of

Fusarium solani



تاريخ : 2012/2/15 | 23:43 PM | نویسنده : |

Onychomycosis Caused by Scopulariopsis Brevicaulis

Onychomycosis Caused by Scopulariopsis Brevicaulis
 


ادامه مطلب
تاريخ : 2012/2/15 | 23:33 PM | نویسنده : |

favus

favus


Favus, also termed tinea favosa, is a chronic inflammatory dermatophytic infection usually caused by Trichophyton schoenleinii.Rarely, favus is caused by Trichophyton violaceum,

Trichophyton mentagrophytes var quinckeanum, or Microsporum gypseum.

Favus typically affects scalp hair but also may infect glabrous skin and nails.



تاريخ : 2012/2/15 | 23:15 PM | نویسنده : |
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