medical mycology
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Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus and the causative agent of the disease paracoccidioidomycosis. The fungus has been affiliated with the family Ajellomycetaceae (division Ascomycota) although a sexual state or teleomorph has not yet been found.

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Black piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair shaft caused by Piedra hortae, an ascomycetous fungus forming hard black nodules on the shafts of the scalp, beard, moustache and pubic hair.

It is common in Central and South America and South-East Asia.

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[ 2014/1/6 ] [ 9:44 AM ] [ ]

Epsilometer test


The Epsilometer test (usually abbreviated Etest) is a laboratory test used by microbiologists to determine whether or not a specific strain of bacterium or fungus is susceptible to the action of a specific antibiotic.

This is most commonly used in the setting of medicine, where a particular organism has been found to infect a patient, and the doctor treating the patient is seeking guidance on what concentration of antibiotic is suitable.



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C. albicans is naturally present in the respiratory tract and mouth of most people, and the vagina of most women. The yeast causes no problem in healthy individuals, as its numbers are controlled by naturally occurring microorganisms. If the natural balance between these microorganisms and Candida is perturbed, the virus may multiply, producing a candidiasis such as thrush.

Symptoms of the disease: small white plaques, usually observed on the tongue and in the mouth.

Incubation period: two to five days.

Contagious period: as long as lesions are present.

Hosts: humans.

Transmission: direct contact with oral, dermal or vaginal secretions or excretions from infected individuals. Transmission may also occur from mother to infant during birth.

Treatment of the disease: nystatin and azole, both taken orally.

Geographical distribution of the microorganism: worldwide.

Prevention: disinfection of beds in nurseries, in order to avoid transmission of thrush from one infant to another.

Vaccine: none.

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[ 2013/1/22 ] [ 10:17 PM ] [ ]
Microscopic Features

Septate hyphae, pycnidia, conidia, and chlamydospores (for some species only) are visualized. The hyphae are hyaline to brown. Pycnidia are the large, round to pyriform, asexual fruiting bodies which are 70-100 µm in diameter. They are dark in color and bear phialides at their inner lining. Pycnidia have one to several openings (ostioles) on their surface from which the conidia are released outside. Conidia are unicellular, hyaline, and oval-shaped. Each conidium typically has two oil droplets inside. Some Phoma species produce brown chlamydospores that are arranged singly or in chains

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[ 2012/11/16 ] [ 11:4 PM ] [ ]

Yeast cell. Computer artwork showing the structure of a yeast cell.

[ 2012/10/10 ] [ 8:28 PM ] [ ]

Computer artwork of Penicillum chrysogenum, which has been used industrially to produce penicillin

[ 2012/10/10 ] [ 8:23 PM ] [ ]

Malassezia skin fungus. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of spore clusters from the fungus Malassezia lipophilis. Malassezia fungi are naturally found on the skin surfaces of many animals, including humans. Some species can cause hypopigmentation on the trunk and other locations in humans.

[ 2012/10/10 ] [ 8:18 PM ] [ ]

Sporopachydermia quercuum

The new ascosporogenous yeast species Sporopachydermia quercuum has been found to react positively with the diazonium blue B reagent, a feature normally associated exclusively with yeasts of basidiomycetous affinity.

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Synnemata form from the aggregation of hyphae resulting in an erect spore bearing complex structures. This shows a simple type.

[ 2012/6/21 ] [ 9:38 PM ] [ ]

pneumocandin B0**a natural fermentation product of the fungus Glarea lozoyensis

Caspofungin acetate (Cancidas) is used to treat aspergillosis, a life threatenting fungal infection
[ 2012/3/24 ] [ 11:52 PM ] [ ]

Amanita muscaria

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[ 2012/2/22 ] [ 3:59 PM ] [ ]

Some representative methods of conidium production

in mitosporic fungi

[ 2012/2/22 ] [ 2:57 PM ] [ ]

Neurospora crassa

  • Neurospora crassa is a filamentous fungus, a bread mold, which in its natural environments can be found growing on dead plant matters predominantly in tropical and subtropical regions.
  • Neurospora crassa is one of most important model organisms of our times. Most of its life stages are haploid which significantly simplifies genetic analysis. Research programs dedicated to Neurospora crassa focus on circadian rhythms, genetiss, gene silencing, ecology, evolution, and many other areas.
[ 2012/2/22 ] [ 2:48 PM ] [ ]

Pythium insidiosum

Pythium is a genus of parasitic oomycete. Most species are plant parasites, but Pythium insidiosum is an important pathogen of animals. Because this group of organisms were once classified as fungi, they are sometimes still treated as such.

Human pythiosis associated with thalassemia hemoglobinopathy syndrome

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[ 2012/2/18 ] [ 10:25 AM ] [ ]

Microsporum canis (Arthroderma otae)


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[ 2012/2/16 ] [ 4:31 PM ] [ ]

Microsporum canis var. distortum

Microsporum canis var. distortum is a zoophilic fungus known to cause infections in cats, dogs and other animals. It is a rare cause of tinea capitis in New Zealand, Australia and North America.

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Nonseptate hyphae of Mucor pusillus which have occluded a vessel.

H & E stain


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Microconidia on long phialides, macroconidia and chlamydospores of

Fusarium solani

[ 2012/2/15 ] [ 11:43 PM ] [ ]
Onychomycosis Caused by Scopulariopsis Brevicaulis

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Favus, also termed tinea favosa, is a chronic inflammatory dermatophytic infection usually caused by Trichophyton schoenleinii.Rarely, favus is caused by Trichophyton violaceum,

Trichophyton mentagrophytes var quinckeanum, or Microsporum gypseum.

Favus typically affects scalp hair but also may infect glabrous skin and nails.

[ 2012/2/15 ] [ 11:15 PM ] [ ]


 is a disease caused by the organism Rhinosporidium seeberi, which was once thought to be a fungus but is now believed to be a rare aquatic protistan parasite of fish. First described in 1900 by Guillermo Seeber, it generally presents as swollen, pink or red polyps in the nasal cavity or the ocular conjunctivae. Other sites of infection are rare. Infection generally occurs after swimming in stagnant freshwater ponds, lakes, or rivers, but is also suspected to occur from dust or air. The disease is most often seen in individuals ages 15-40, with preferential occurrence in boys. R. seeberi progresses through several stages of development and can be easily diagnosed via traditional fungal stains. Although there is no effective antibiotic therapy, surgical excision of the polyps is often successful in treating the disease. R. seeberi has a worldwide distribution with a proclivity for warm, tropical environments. It is most prevalent in southern India, Sri Lanka, and southeast Asia, although cases have been reported in South America, Africa, and the U.S. There are no alternate synonyms for the disease.

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[ 2012/2/15 ] [ 10:49 PM ] [ ]
Trichophyton verrucosum

Nutritional requirements: all strains require thiamine and approximately 80% require thiamine and inositol. There is no growth on casein vitamin free agar (T1), minimal submerged growth on T1 + inositol (T2), good growth on T1 + inositol and thiamine (T3) and no growth on T1 + thiamine only (T4)

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